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Download Sun Java Certification Questions And Answers PDF

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Description

Java is a strongly typed language as compiler checks all expressions and parameters

All type mismatch must be corrected otherwise compiler will give an error

Primitive Type: there are 8 primitive types

They are also called simple types

Primitive types are not object oriented

Integers: byte (8 bits), short (2 Bytes), Int (4 bytes), long (8 bytes)

All are signed i

they can contain positive and negative

Note: Java does not support unsigned value: positive values only

Floating Type (Also known as real numbers): Float (4 Bytes), Double (8 Bytes)

Single precision Doubles: (Double precision): Characters: (2 Byte): Java uses Unicode to represent characters

Char can be incremented

//value will be changed to Y Booleans: logical values

Boolean controls if, it can be an outcome of relational operator

+ operator has higher precedence than > Literals: Integer Literal: Any whole number value is an integer literal

Decimal, octal and hexadecimal numbers

Floating point Literals: floating point literals defaults to Double

Character Literal: Octal: char x = ‘\141’

HEX: char hex = ‘\u0061’ Variables: In java there are 2 variable scopes: defined by class or method scope

Objects declared in the outer scope are visible to inner scope, however reverse is not true

Two variables with the same name and different scope cannot be defined

Type conversion and casting: Assign a value of one type to a variable of another type

If two types are compatible then conversion is automatic

Explicit conversions need to perform on incompatible data types

Widening Conversion: 2 types should be compatible and destination type is larger than source type

Integer and floating types are compatible with each other

Note: Automatic conversion for storing a literal integer constant into variable of type byte, short, long, char

Narrowing Conversion: int value to byte

Automation type promotion in Expressions: Java automatically promotes each byte, short or char operand to integer when evaluating an expression

class Test { public static void main (String args []) { int n = 12

//octal value char oct = '\141'

//Automatic conversion for Integer literal final int num = 24

//compile-time error byte b2 = 50

//operands get automatically promoted to int System

Arrays: Single Dimensional Array class Array { public static void main (String args []) { //one way of declaring array int arr []

//2nd way of declaring array int arr1 [] = new int [5]

//Arrays can be initialized when they are declared int ar [] = {1,2,3,4,5}

//placing value in array for (int i = 0

} //displaying values using arrays

Multidimensional Array: You only need to declare rows and not columns

Columns can be declared manually

Columns can be dynamic Operators: char type in java is actually a subset of integer

First increment is executed and then value is assigned to b

First value of b is assigned to a then b is incremented

The outcome of relational operator is a Boolean value

Unsigned Right Shift (>>>): shift a zero into the high order bit no matter what the initial value is

IF/case: switch expression must be of type byte, short, int, char

each case value must be a constant, not a variable

The case argument must be final or const

Duplicate case values are not allowed

Case has to be resolved at compile time

If variable is not Boolean if statement wouldn’t compile

You must initialize a constant variable when its declared

Loops: A null statement is syntactically is valid in java

Continue: Good uses of continue are rare

Objective: Select a resource bundle based on locale ResourceBundle is a set of related subclasses that share the same base name

To select the appropriate ResourceBundle, invoke the ResourceBundle

Package: Java

Class: Locale: Locale class provides 3 constructors and one of them is Locale (String language, String country, String variant) Class: ResourceBundle Class: Applets don’t require a main() method

Constructors: Automatic initialization is performed through constructors

No return type

Proper overloaded constructor is based on argument list

A constructor can be of any data type

Note: this can be used inside any method to refer to the current object

Finalization: a specific action can be defined that will occur when an object is just about to reclaim by the garbage collector

protected void finalize () {//finalization code } Overloading Methods: Methods having same name but different parameter list

Overloaded method must change argument list

“One interface, multiple methods”

Polymorphism is supported through method overloading

Encapsulation: Encapsulation provides access control

Allow access through well defined set of methods

Public: member can be accessed by another code

Private: member can be accessed only by its members of the class

Protected: applied only when inheritance is involved

Default: same as specifying public

NOTE: when no access modifier is specified then by default the member of a class is public within its own package but cannot be accessed outside of package

Static: Instance variable declared as static are normally global variables

They must only access static data or methods

They cannot refer to this or super

String: Every string is an object of type String

String constants are string objects

Once a string object is created its contents cannot be altered

StringBuilder Class: if large number of String concatenation is required then StringBuilder is more efficient

Inheritance: Only 1 super class for any subclass

Java does not support multiple inheritances

Private members cannot be accessed by subclass

Method Overriding: Method having same name and type signature

Overridden methods are another way that java implements “one Interface, multiple methods” aspect of Polymorphism

The compiler looks only at the reference type not the instance type

Animal a = new Horse ()

// Animal reference but a horse object NOTE: The overriding method cannot have a more restricted access modifier

Abstract Classes: Syntax: abstract type name (parameter-list)

No objects of an abstract class

Package: it’s the first statement in java source file

It is case-sensitive

If you want your element to be seen outside of your current package, but only to classes that subclasses your class directly, then protected is used

Interfaces: It’s an aspect of polymorphism

It supports dynamic method resolution at run-time

Variables are implicitly final and static

Through interface multiple inheritances can be implemented like in C++

The method that implements an interface must be declared public

When we implement an interface, it must be declared public

Interface variables are public, static, final

Interface methods cannot be static

Exception Handling: To manually throw an exception, use the keyword throw

Any code that must be executed after try block is put in finally

Subclass comes first when catching exception otherwise compile

The flow of execution stops after the throw statement

To create a standard java standard exception object

throw new NullPointerException (“demo”)

Exceptions are within java

Runtime exceptions are unchecked exceptions

Runtime exceptions need not to be included in any method throws list

Exceptions that must be included in method’s throws list are checked exceptions

JDBC API: Objective: Submit Queries and read results from database 1

Establish connection with datasource Connection con = DriverManager

Create a statement: A statement is an interface that represents an SQL statement

Statement objects result in resultSet objects Statement stmt = con

Execute Queries Resultset rs = stmt

//where query is query While (rs

next()) //Retrieving fields from database For INSERT, DELETE OR UPDATE use following method executeUpdate () //returns an integer representing number of rows affected

Closing connection Stmt

close () Objective: Declare and use ArrayList ArrayList: Package: java

ArrayList

Implement List interface

Decleration: ArrayList al = new ArrayList ()

//builds empty array list Note: you cannot store primitive types in collection

toArray() gives you contents of original list